The actual introduction of corrugated cardboard packaging began at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1871, Albert Jones patented a method of producing corrugated cardboard, which later became the basis for the production of corrugated paper and its use in packaging. However, there are several early patented methods and inventions that contributed to the development of corrugated paper.

Corrugated cardboard packaging was first commercially produced at the beginning of the 20th century. Over time, corrugated cardboard packaging has become a very important part of the packaging industry and is widely used in various fields, including packaging of food, electronics, furniture, and many other goods.

Types of corrugated cardboard

Double-layer corrugated cardboard

Usually in rolls, intended for packing non-standard goods.
Consists of a smooth paper layer and a corrugated paper layer.

Three-layer corrugated cardboard

The most commonly used material for packaging.
It consists of a smooth paper layer, a wave layer (corrugated paper layer), and a smooth paper layer.

Five-layer corrugated cardboard

Used to make packages for packing heavier goods. Consists of a smooth cardboard layer, a corrugated layer (corrugated paper layer), a smooth cardboard layer, a wave layer (corrugated paper layer), and a smooth cardboard layer.

Wave profiles

Depending on the height of the waves, E, B, C, BC, and BE wave profiles are distinguished (there are others that are less common)

Profile E

average height 1,5mm

Profile B

average height 3,0mm

Profile C

average height 4,0mm

Profile BC

average height 7,0mm

Profile EB

average height 4,2mm

Corrugated cardboard components

The following components are used to make corrugated cardboard:


Kraftliner is a strong and durable type of paper that is used for the production of corrugated cardboard and, subsequently, for the manufacture of boxes. It is known for its high strength and durability and is perfect for the manufacture of packaging and containers where good protection, strength, and moisture resistance are required.


Testliner is a type of paper that is also used to produce corrugated cardboard and then to make packaging. It is a paper made from lower-quality fibers compared to Kraftliner but still has sufficient strength and durability for many packaging needs. Testliner is made 100% or partially from recycled paper.


Fluting or corrugated paper is a wavy, elastic inner layer. It is this layer that gives the corrugated cardboard the ability to withstand pressure and protect the packaged items from impact. The structure of corrugated cardboard helps to relieve pressure and shocks and makes it an excellent material for the safe transport and packaging of various products.

Testliner and Kraftliner are both widely used papers in box making, but their use depends on several factors, including market demand, specific applications, and conditions of use.

Kraftliner is usually stronger and more durable and, therefore, may be preferred in situations where packaging strength and durability are key requirements. It is often used for packaging heavy items and making boxes where greater strength and protection are required. Packages with Kraftliner layers have a longer service life, moisture resistance, and properties that are preferred in the food industry.

Testliner is slightly less durable than Kraftliner but has good printability and is a more environmentally friendly material because it is recycled. This material can be preferred in situations where the package does not have to have a large carrying capacity and the package is used in a dry environment; it is the price of the package that is decisive.

In general, both types of paper are widely used, but specific uses may vary according to market demand and customer needs. It is important to choose the type of paper according to packaging needs, product characteristics, and environmental impact and to consider ecological sustainability.

Choice of materials

In order to choose the most suitable material for packaging based on its purpose and the price-quality ratio, attention must be paid to the following mechanical strength properties:

Edge Crush Test (ECT)

Resistance to edge pressure – the test is performed by pressing the sample from the ends, measuring the force required to break it. It is measured in kN/m, and this value is proportional to the stacking strength of the package.

Flat Crush Test (FCT)

Resistance to flat pressure, the test is performed by pressing from the ground. It is measured in kPa.

Mullen Test (BST)

The Mullen test shows how well the material can withstand punctures and shocks. The results of this test can be taken into account, for example, on packages intended for sorting and distribution centers. It is measured in kPa.

Attention should also be paid to the thickness (mm) and moisture absorption of the corrugated cardboard.

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